FIVE Signs Of Papilledema

The principal pathophysiology of optic disc swelling is blockage of axoplasmic transport.

The  Five mechanical clinical signs of optic disc edema are:

1 Blurring of the optic disc margins.
2 Filling in of the optic disc cup.
3 Anterior extension of the nerve head (3D = 1mm of elevation).
4 edema of the nerve fiber layer.
5 Retinal or choroidal folds, or both.

 

The  Five vascular clinical signs of optic disc edema are:

1 Venous congestion of arcuate and peripapillary vessels.
2 Papillary and retinal peripapillary hemorrhages.
3 Nerve fiber layer infarcts (cotton-wool spots).
4 Hyperemia of the optic nerve head.
5 Hard exudates of the optic disc.
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