Eales’ disease Classification

Charmis classified Eales’ disease based on its evolution and prognosis. Stage I : mild periphlebitis of small peripheral retinal capillaries (venous). Stage II : Above features become widespread and larger veins are affected. Stage III : New vessel formation. Stage IV : Retinitis proliferans and traction retinal detachment as a result of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage.... Continue Reading →


Classification Of Papilledema

classification of optic disc edema

Clinical stages of Fuch’s dystrophy.

Stage: 1 Asymptomatic Central cornel guttae Pigments on posterior corneal surface Gray and thickened appearance of Descemet’s membrane In advanced cases, endothelium has a ‘beaten-bronze’( melanin deposition). Stage: 2 Painless decrease in vision and glare, severe on awakening Stromal edema (ground glass appearance) Microcystic epithelial edema (occurs when stromal thickness has been increased by about 30%).... Continue Reading →

FIVE Signs Of Papilledema

The principal pathophysiology of optic disc swelling is blockage of axoplasmic transport. The  Five mechanical clinical signs of optic disc edema are: 1 Blurring of the optic disc margins. 2 Filling in of the optic disc cup. 3 Anterior extension of the nerve head (3D = 1mm of elevation). 4 edema of the nerve fiber... Continue Reading →

Benjamin & Bifocals

The bifocal  was  invented  by  Benjamin Franklin  in the  eighteenth century.   At that time,  when someone wearing  glasses  became presbyopic,  a separate pair  of  reading  glasses  was  prescribed. When Ben  Franklin  found  himself  in  that situation,  he  felt it was  inefficient  to  have  to  change glasses  when alternating  his  vision from  distance  to near ... Continue Reading →

OCT Classification Of Diabetic Macular edema

The detection of clinical thickening of the macula has been possible unless the foveal thickness is more than 1.33 times the normal retinal thickness values. OCT sensitivity to detect DME is very high (98.6 %) Evaluation of the OCT scans demonstrated five distinct patterns of DME : Type 1: focal macular thickening (30.3 %) Type... Continue Reading →

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