- Hyperaemia, indistinct margins (lower pole first).
- Blurring of peri-papillary retinal nerve fiber layer.
- Splinter haemorrhages in the peri-papillary region.
- Absence of SVP ( not always, may be absent in 20% of normal)
- Obvious swelling, numerous haemorrhages.
- Engorged veins, obscuration of surface vessels.
- Paton’s lines, cotton wool spots, macular fan or star.
- Haemorrhages and exudates resolve.
- Disc has rounded appearance, milky gray colour.
- Obliteration of cup, NFL defects .
- Pale disc.
- Narrow and sheathed vessels.
- Peri-papillary pigmentary changes / choroidal folds.